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The Facilities, Mechanical, Electrical Resource Center


May 2, 2003
Editor: Thomas Yoon

Publisher: Facworld Ezine


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Publisher's Note 

Hi there,

Centrifugal chillers are used for cooling large buildings in 
a centralized air conditioning system. There are other types 
of chillers using screw compressors and reciprocating 
compressors. These are usually smaller in size. Today's topic 
is about centrifugal chillers - the ultimate choice for any 
air conditioning installations higher than 500 RT 
(refrigeration tons)

Basically, centrifugal chillers use centrifugal fans to move 
the refrigerant within the chiller circuit. As with any 
refrigeration circuit, there must be a compressor, a 
condenser, an expansion device, and the evaporator. 

In the case of the centrifugal chiller, the fan is the 
compressor. Rotating at very high speeds, it is capable of 
pressurizing the refrigerant gas so as to increase its 
temperature. Because the pressure is so dependent on the 
efficiency of the impeller of the compressor, the impeller 
is very carefully designed to match the system.

The clearances between the impeller and the housing at the 
mouth ring (impeller suction) are made very small so as to 
reduce leaks back to the discharge.

Usually inlet vanes that throttle the gas control the flow 
of the gas, and thus the chiller load. The expansion of 
the liquid to gas is usually made through a fixed orifice.

The lubrication of the shaft bearings must be done within 
the chiller itself. Oil passages and shaft driven pumps 
(with motor driven pumps at startup) is made for 

The oil will find their way to the condenser and has to be 
extracted back to the lubrication system. Usually there 
will be an eductor system to suck back the oil to the oil 

Centrifugal chillers are usually designed for low-pressure 
refrigerant like R-123a.

These chillers sometimes surge when running, and they are 
very sensitive to sudden changes in loads. Therefore 
modern centrifugal chillers make use of electronic 
microprocessors to control the various parameters and 
timing in order to run smoothly.

Indeed, when everything is perfect, the centrifugal 
chiller is capable of extremely smooth operation.

Folks, be cool!

Until next time…

Thomas Yoon
Editor, Facworld Ezine
More information can be obtained at


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Although we do make an effort to verify offers, we do not 
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Contact Information 

Thomas Yoon, Publisher/Editor
4186 Bagan Luar Road
12000 Butterworth

Contact me at

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