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The Facilities, Mechanical, Electrical Resource Center


October 2, 2003
Editor: Thomas Yoon

Publisher: Facworld Ezine


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Hi there,

Complex control systems all make use of signals that can be
easily measured and altered remotely. Automatically operated
machines or actuators need to be powered either by electrical
motors, pneumatic or hydraulic cylinders.

The most common signals sent out from a transducer are
electrical current or voltage and pneumatic pressure. These
signals are easily translated by controllers. Visual measuring
devices like liquid bulb thermometers are not able to be used
in automatic control systems because there are no electrical
or pneumatic signals.

However, when some other component is added to it to enable it
to give a corresponding signal, then the measuring unit becomes
a transducer.

A transducer is a device to convert a signal (representing a
physical quantity) of one form into a corresponding signal of
another form, retaining the amplitude variations of energy
being converted.

Just as an example, a microphone is a sound transducer (acoustic
to electrical) and a loudspeaker is an electrical transducer
(electrical to acoustic). A transducer may be an integral part
of the measuring unit, for example pressure to displacement in
a Bourdon pressure gauge. It may also be a separate unit
converter especially suitable to change the signal to a better
form for remote transmission, e.g. displacement to electrical
in a differential transformer.

How do these transducers work?

To convert physical movement to electrical signals, some devices
make use of variable resistors. Any movement will cause a slider
contact to change position against a resistance wire causing a
change in electrical current or voltage. Other devices may make
use of the movement to alter the position of an induction coil
relative to the magnetic core, causing a change in the induced
current in the circuit. Others may make use of the movement to
change the air gap between two capacitance plates, causing a
change in the current in the circuit.

In the case of the loudspeaker, the opposite effect takes place.
Electrical signals are converted to movement.

Some pneumatic transducers make use of changing air signals to
cause a corresponding mechanical movement in the flapper and
linkages. This movement is then converted to electrical signals
by the methods above. So it takes 3 steps of conversion before
we can get the electrical signal.

Once the electrical signal is obtained, it can be used to compare
to the set value in the controller, and a whole control system can
be designed from it.

Well folks, get your signals and be in control!

Until next time…

Thomas Yoon
Editor, Facworld Ezine
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Suit all occasions



© Copyright By Charlie Cook

You want to market your business but you don't want to spend a
lot of money. You may be just starting out and have precious little
capital or you may have a successful business but want to spend
as little as possible for the greatest results. Or, you may just be
cheap. How can you create a marketing strategy that results in a
steady stream of new clients on a shoestring budget?

The key is having the KNOWLEDGE, SKILLS, SYSTEMS and TOOLS
to create and implement your marketing plan.

While service professionals and small business owners are experts in
their business, they often don't have the marketing knowledge they
need to grow their businesses. If you aren't attracting dozens of new
prospects each week and converting at least one of them to client
status, you need to learn what to do to market your business.

Depending on your budget, you can:
1. Visit your local library and read a dozen books on marketing.
2. Spend one or two hundred dollars on a couple of marketing
manuals from the marketing masters on the web.
3. Hire a marketing coach or consultant to help you learn what
to do and how to do it.
4. Pay a marketing expert to do your marketing for you.

Once you have a marketing plan you'll need to develop some
marketing skills, no matter what your role is in your organization.
The three most important skills are:

1. Asking the Right Questions
Open-ended questions are the best way to direct prospects to engage
prospects, direct their thinking and learn what they want.
Do you know:
- What your prospects care about?
- The problems your prospects want to solve?
- What information your prospects want?
Use questions to get the answers. Put together 5-10 questions
to ask your prospects.
2. Listening
Listen carefully to understand, provide a synthesis of their responses
and use a problem-solving approach to provide the link between
symptoms and causes.
3. Writing Compelling Copy
The copy in your marketing materials and the copy you use for your
"elevator speech" will make the difference between attracting or
boring prospects. Demonstrate to prospects, that you understand
their concerns and their business context, and that you are the expert
they need. Start by regularly giving them an idea they can use.

Establish systems to support your marketing plan. Setting up the
systems to market your business costs little and make an
unmanageable task a clerical function you or your assistant can do.
You'll need to set a schedule for marketing activities, define
responsibilities and use your computer to automate tasks. The most
important systems to develop and implement are a way to collect
leads and stay in touch with prospects and clients. You'll need a
centralized database and a schedule for staying in touch with
prospects and clients in order to do this.

Automate functions where possible so you can focus your time on
delivering products and services. There is simple and easy to use
software that can help you manage contacts, add prospects to your
database and send out broadcast emails to the people who are
interested in getting your ideas. Once you've put these marketing
systems in place, you can focus on handling the growing number of
inquires you will receive.

The tools you need to market your business will vary depending on
your target market and the products and services you offer. The
basics include:

1. Marketing materials, the finished copy you use on everything
from your business card, to your brochures, or online.
2. Questions, the questions you use when people call about your
services, or when you meet with clients, or to find out what
information they want so you can write the perfect proposal.
3. Communication tools, such as a phone, email and website.

Take a look at your marketing and determine if you have the
Knowledge, Skills, Systems and Tools to attract a steady stream
of new clients. Identify the gaps and fill them. You may need to
invest a few dollars to make many, but with frugal marketing
strategies you can limit marketing expenditures and maximize profits.
2003 © In Mind Communications, LLC. All rights reserved.
About the Author: The author, Marketing Coach, Charlie Cook, helps independent
professionals and small business owners who are struggling to attract more clients.
He can be contacted at or visit to get
a copy of the free marketing guide, '7 Steps to Get More Clients & Grow Your Business'.


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Contact Information

Thomas Yoon, Publisher/Editor
4186 Bagan Luar Road
12000 Butterworth

Contact me at

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