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The Facilities, Mechanical, Electrical Resource Center


November 3, 2003
Editor: Thomas Yoon

Publisher: Facworld Ezine


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Publisher's Note

Hi there,

One of the most reliable internal combustion engines around
is the diesel engine. In many industrial installations, diesel
engines are used as prime movers for the generation of
electricity and for emergency air compressors.

It's true that they are rugged, but one of the most important
advantages of these engines is the fact that they can be
started by manual cranking. In remote areas, diesel engines
can be counted upon for starting up from scratch.

Once a small diesel engine is started, it can be used to drive
a small electrical generator that can then be used to produce
electrical supply for driving other machines like pumps,
compressors, and for lighting.

How does a diesel engine work?

First there must be combustion of fuel. As we have discussed
in our previous articles, combustion or burning of fuel occurs
whenever there is sufficient heat, fuel and oxygen. When
conditions are just right, combustion can be very rapid. Rapid
combustion causes an explosion in an enclosed area. This is
because of the rapid built-up of hot gases during the process.

In an internal combustion engine like a diesel engine, this
rapid combustion, and built-up of hot gas pressure is used to
push a piston away from the enclosed combustion space.

The piston is attached to a crankshaft through a connecting rod.
Because of this, the engine is able to convert the linear
movement of a piston to a rotating movement of a crankshaft.

The outward movement of the piston turns the crankshaft. However,
the momentum of the turning crankshaft forces the piston back
again towards the engine combustion space in a reciprocating

Once the piston moves away from the combustion space, the
pressure drops. The next stage of operation depends on the
design of the engine. These can be either 2-stroke or 4-stroke

Regardless of the type of design, the spent exhaust gas is
first driven out, and then new fresh air is drawn back into
the combustion chamber.

After this, the rotating crankshaft drives the piston to
compress the fresh air inside the combustion chamber. The
piston acts as a reciprocating compressor at this stage.

The compression of the air causes the latter to become hot - hot
enough to ignite finely distributed fuel particles.

At this moment, fuel is sprayed in at high pressure. The tiny
sprayed fuel particles form a mist inside the combustion chamber.

What do think will happen when you have heat, fuel and oxygen?
A fire! Each tiny particle of the fuel burns rapidly, and an
explosion occurs.

The cycle starts again, and the crankshaft turns continuously,
the pistons move continuously, and the engine runs.

How does the engine know when to spray fuel, let in air, compress
the air, and exhaust the spent combustion product?

Well folks, start your engines.

Until next time…

Thomas Yoon
Editor, Facworld Ezine
More information can be obtained at


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© Copyright By Charlie Cook

You want to market your business but you don't want to spend a
lot of money. You may be just starting out and have precious little
capital or you may have a successful business but want to spend
as little as possible for the greatest results. Or, you may just be
cheap. How can you create a marketing strategy that results in a
steady stream of new clients on a shoestring budget?

The key is having the KNOWLEDGE, SKILLS, SYSTEMS and TOOLS
to create and implement your marketing plan.

While service professionals and small business owners are experts in
their business, they often don't have the marketing knowledge they
need to grow their businesses. If you aren't attracting dozens of new
prospects each week and converting at least one of them to client
status, you need to learn what to do to market your business.

Depending on your budget, you can:
1. Visit your local library and read a dozen books on marketing.
2. Spend one or two hundred dollars on a couple of marketing
manuals from the marketing masters on the web.
3. Hire a marketing coach or consultant to help you learn what
to do and how to do it.
4. Pay a marketing expert to do your marketing for you.

Once you have a marketing plan you'll need to develop some
marketing skills, no matter what your role is in your organization.
The three most important skills are:

1. Asking the Right Questions
Open-ended questions are the best way to direct prospects to engage
prospects, direct their thinking and learn what they want.
Do you know:
- What your prospects care about?
- The problems your prospects want to solve?
- What information your prospects want?
Use questions to get the answers. Put together 5-10 questions
to ask your prospects.
2. Listening
Listen carefully to understand, provide a synthesis of their responses
and use a problem-solving approach to provide the link between
symptoms and causes.
3. Writing Compelling Copy
The copy in your marketing materials and the copy you use for your
"elevator speech" will make the difference between attracting or
boring prospects. Demonstrate to prospects, that you understand
their concerns and their business context, and that you are the expert
they need. Start by regularly giving them an idea they can use.

Establish systems to support your marketing plan. Setting up the
systems to market your business costs little and make an
unmanageable task a clerical function you or your assistant can do.
You'll need to set a schedule for marketing activities, define
responsibilities and use your computer to automate tasks. The most
important systems to develop and implement are a way to collect
leads and stay in touch with prospects and clients. You'll need a
centralized database and a schedule for staying in touch with
prospects and clients in order to do this.

Automate functions where possible so you can focus your time on
delivering products and services. There is simple and easy to use
software that can help you manage contacts, add prospects to your
database and send out broadcast emails to the people who are
interested in getting your ideas. Once you've put these marketing
systems in place, you can focus on handling the growing number of
inquires you will receive.

The tools you need to market your business will vary depending on
your target market and the products and services you offer. The
basics include:

1. Marketing materials, the finished copy you use on everything
from your business card, to your brochures, or online.
2. Questions, the questions you use when people call about your
services, or when you meet with clients, or to find out what
information they want so you can write the perfect proposal.
3. Communication tools, such as a phone, email and website.

Take a look at your marketing and determine if you have the
Knowledge, Skills, Systems and Tools to attract a steady stream
of new clients. Identify the gaps and fill them. You may need to
invest a few dollars to make many, but with frugal marketing
strategies you can limit marketing expenditures and maximize profits.
2003 © In Mind Communications, LLC. All rights reserved.
About the Author: The author, Marketing Coach, Charlie Cook, helps independent
professionals and small business owners who are struggling to attract more clients.
He can be contacted at or visit to get
a copy of the free marketing guide, '7 Steps to Get More Clients & Grow Your Business'.


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Thomas Yoon, Publisher/Editor
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12000 Butterworth

Contact me at

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